Textiles for military uniforms face a complex set of challenges. They must provide protection, durability and comfort in a wide range of hostile environments. Military textiles reviews the range of recent research on how military clothing can best meet soldiers' needs. The first part of the book reviews general requirements of military textiles, including damage resistance, comfort, sweat management, cold-weather conditions and the integration of high-tech materials into uniforms. The second part concentrates on the protective role of military textiles, covering such areas as high-performance ballistic fibers, textiles for chemical and biological protection, camouflage materials and military fabrics for flame protection. The book also reviews the use of non-woven fabrics and new coatings for military applications.
CONTENTS OF THE BOOK.
E Wilusz, US Army Natick Soldier Research, Development &Engineering Center, USA
PART 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR MILITARY TEXTILES.
Future soldier requirements: Dealing with complexity.
E Sparks, Cranfield University, UK.
Introduction. The current and future challenges faced by the soldier. Dynamic complexity: the impact of the human. Provision of capability and how to make trade-off decisions. Summary. References.
Non-woven fabrics for military applications.
H L Thomas, Auburn University, USA.
Introduction. Protective materials, devices and end-use requirements. Proper sections of fibers. Variations of fiber forms. Filament lay-up composites. Historical uses of non-woven ballistic resistant fibers. Methodologies for use of non-woven ballistic resistant fabrics. Future directions for non-woven fabric applications. References.
Mechanical failure criteria for textiles and textile damage resistance.
N Pan, University of California, USA.
Introduction: Materials resistance, strength and failure. Material strengths. The peculiarities about textile mechanics. Failure criteria for fabrics. Other forms of failure for fabrics and garments. Fabric and garment failure reduction. References.
Predicting the handle and comfort of military clothing fabrics.
A V Cardello, US Army Natick Soldier Research,Development & Engineering Center, USA.
Introduction. The sensory and perceptual properties of fabrics and clothing. The comfort properties of fabrics and clothing. Cognitive influences on fabrics and clothing. Hand feel and comfort evaluations of military fabrics. Cognitive influences on fabric and clothing perception.
The role of clothing comfort on military performance. Conclusions. Acknowledgment. References.
Testing and analyzing comfort properties of textile materials for military
F S Kilinc-Balci and Y El Mogahzy, Auburn University, USA.
Introduction. The multiplicity of characterization methodologies of comfort.
The trade-off between protection and comfort. The comfort trilobite: Tactile, thermal, and psychology. Modelling the comfort phenomena: the ultimate challenge. Comfort and protection in military clothing. Multiple-layer systems. Future trends. References.
Sweat management for military applications
N Pan, University of California, USA.
Introduction: Body/clothing/environment – the microclimate. Heat,moisture and human body thermoregulation. Heat and moisture interactions in the microclimate. Sweat management for military apparel applications. Conclusions. References.
C Thwaites, W L Gore and Associates, UK
Introduction. Cold weather. Physiological responses to cold. Clothing design principles. Estimation of the clothing insulation required.
Evaluation system for textiles and garments. Selection of clothing for cold weather. Sources of further information and advice. References.
Designing military uniforms with high-tech materials
C Gomes, Foster-Miller Inc., USA.
Introduction. Design process. Features of military uniforms. Physiological monitoring. Thermal management. Signature management. Chemical and biological. Flame resistance. Environmental. Body armor. Future trends. Sources of further information and advice. References.
PART 2 PROTECTION
High-performance ballistic fibres
T Tam and A Bhatnagar, Honeywell International Inc., USA
Introduction. Classical high performance fibers. Rigid chain aromatic high performance fibers. High temperature performance fibers. High performance thermoplastic fibers. Physical properties comparison.
Requirements for high performance fiber. Aramid fibers. Gel spinning of ulta high molecular weight polyethylene (HMPE) fiber. Poly fiber. Sources of further information and advice. References.
Ballistics testing of textile materials.
D R Dunn, H P White Laboratory, Inc., USA
Introduction. Military usage of textiles. Armor testing. Ballistic limit (V50)testing. Residual velocity testing. Ballistic resistance testing. Blunt trauma (back-face deformation) testing. Appendix 1: US Military standards for armoring materials and commodities. Appendix 2: Glossary.
Chemical and biological protection
Q Truong and E Wilusz, US Army Natick Soldier Research,Development & Engineering Center, USA.
Introduction. Current chemical/biological (CB) protective clothing and individual equipment. Standards. Different types of materials. Proper protective material designs. Clothing system designs. Testing and evaluation of chemical/biological protective materials and clothing systems. Future trends. Acknowledgements. References.
Chemical warfare agent characteristics.
Appendix 2: Selected biological agent characteristics.
Appendix 3: Protective gloves and shoes.
Appendix4: Overgarment and other chemical protective clothing systems.
Appendix 5: Improved toxicological agent protective ensemble (ITAP), Self contained, toxic, environment protective outfit (STEPO) and other selected civillian emergency response clothing systems.
Appendix 6:Toxic industrial chemicals.
Self-detoxifying materials for chemical biological protective clothing.
G Sun, University of California, S Worley and R Broughton. Jr, Auburn University, USA.
Introduction. Self-decontaminating materials for chemical biological protective clothing. Applications. Future trends. Summary. Acknowledgements. References.
Camouflage fabrics for military protective clothing.
P Sudhakar and N Gobi, K S Rangasamy,College of Technology, M Senthilkumar, PSG Polytechnic College, India.
Introduction. Methods for production of camouflage textiles. Chromic materials. Indentification of chromophores. Synthesis of new polymers.Synthesis of monomeric and oligomeric chromophores.Conductive/conjugated polymers. Emissive polymers. Surface attachment of chromophores to conducting polymers. Processing of electrically conducting polymers. Assembling of gold nano particles. Conclusion. Acknowledgement. References.
New developments in coatings and fibers for military applications.
P Sudhakar, S Krishnaramesh and D Brightlivingstone, K S Rangasamy College of Technology, India
Introduction. Chemical agent resistant coatings. Influence of environmental regulations. Water-reducible, two-component polyurethane, chemical agent resistant coating (CARC) topcoat.Contribution of binders and pigments. Functional garments for military soldiers. New generation fibers for military applications. Acknowledgement. References.
Military fabrics for flame protection.
C Winterhalter, US Army Natick Soldier Research,Development & Engineering Center, USA.
Introduction. Types of fabrics and their performance. Measuring flame and thermal performance. Clothing system configurations and their performance. Future trends. References.
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