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Electrospinning uses an electrical charge to form a mat of fine fibers. Electrospinning shares characteristics of both the commercial electrospray technique and the commercial spinning of fibers. The standard setup for electrospinning consists of a spinneret with a metallic needle, a syringe pump, a high-voltage power supply, and a grounded collector. A polymer, sol-gel, composite solution (or melt) is loaded into the syringe and this liquid is driven to the needle tip by a syringe pump, forming a droplet at the tip. When a voltage is applied to the needle, the droplet is first stretched into a structure called the Taylor cone. If the viscosity of the material is sufficiently high, varicose breakup does not occur (if it does, droplets are electrosprayed) and an electrified liquid jet is formed. The jet is then elongated and whipped continuously by electrostatic repulsion until it is deposited on the grounded collector. This process was patented by Antonin Formhals in 1934.